ماهیت‌شناسی گروه‌های سنی اسلام‌گرا در نیجریه

فصلنامه مطالعات راهبردي جهان اسلام، سال بیست و دوم، شماره ۲، پياپي ۸۶، تابستان ۱۴۰۰؛ صفحات ۱۳۱-۱۵۲

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسنده :

* اصغر بیانی

* دکترای علوم سیاسی

چکیده

حوزه کشورهای آفریقا همواره عرصه کشمکش‌های داخلی و خارجی بوده است و این روند اخیراً برجسته شده است. ترکیه، اسرائیل، ایران، عربستان و سایر قدرت‌های غرب آسیا در حال یارگیری برای یک رقابت در این قاره هستند. مولفه‌های قومی و به‌ویژه مذهبی این روند را تشدید کرده است. به‌ویژه که این مولفه‌ها، عرصه سیاسی کشورهای آفریقایی را بیش از هر ناحیه دیگری دچار بحران کرده است. نیجریه در این بین به‌واسطه جمعیت مسلمان و مسیحی موقعیت برجسته‌ای دارد. مساله مذهب و سیاست به‌شدت عرصه داخلی نیجریه را متشنج کرده و این تشنج با حمایت‌های خارجی وخیم‌تر می‌شود. با توجه به اهمیت مذهب در جامعه نیجریه، این مقاله به بررسی ماهیت گروه‌های سنی اسلام‌گرا در این کشور می‌پردازد و در نهایت به تعاملات این گروه‌ها با مسیحیت و تشیع  و ارتباط آن با عربستان و برخی کشورهای عربی می‌پردازد.

واژگان کلیدی

اسلام، مسیحیت، سیاست، افراط‌گرایی، نیجریه، عربستان

عنوان مقاله [English]

Understanding the nature of Islamist Sunni groups in Nigeria

نویسنده  [English]

Asghar Bayani

چکیده [English]

Abstract

The sphere of African countries has always been the arena of internal and external conflicts, and this trend has been highlighted recently. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia and other West Asian powers are competing for the continent. Ethnic and especially religious components have intensified this trend. In particular, these components have put the political arena of African countries in crisis more than any other region. Nigeria, meanwhile, is prominent in terms of Muslim and Christian populations. The issue of religion and politics has severely shaken Nigeria’s domestic arena, and it is exacerbated by foreign support. Given the importance of religion in Nigerian society, this article examines the nature of Islamist Sunni groups in the country, and finally examines the interactions of these groups with Christianity and Shiism and their relationship with Saudi Arabia and some Arab countries.

واژگان کلیدی[English]

Keywords

Islam, Christianity, Politics, Extremism, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia

عنوان مقاله [العربية]

فهم طبيعة الجماعات الإسلامية السنية في نيجيريا

چکیده [العربية]

المخلص

لطالما كان مجال البلدان الأفريقية ساحة للنزاعات الداخلية والخارجية‌، وقد ساءت هذه الحالة في الآونة الأخيرة. تتنافس تركيا وإسرائيل وإيران والسعودية وقوى أخرى في غرب آسيا على القارة. وقد كثفت المكونات العرقية وخاصة الدينية من هذا الاتجاه. وعلى وجه الخصوص‌، فقد وضعت هذه المكونات الساحة السياسية للبلدان الأفريقية في أزمة أكثر من أي منطقة أخرى. وفي الوقت نفسه‌، تحتل نيجيريا مكانة بارزة من حيث عدد السكان المسلمين والمسيحيين. لقد هزت قضية الدين والسياسة الساحة الداخلية لنيجيريا بشدة‌، وتفاقمت بسبب الدعم الأجنبي. نظرًا لأهمية الدين في المجتمع النيجيري‌، تبحث هذه المقالة في طبيعة الجماعات الإسلامية السنية في البلاد‌، وتتناول أخيرًا تفاعل هذه الجماعات مع المسيحية والشيعة وعلاقتها بالمملكة العربية السعودية وبعض الدول العربية.

الكلمات المفتاحية

الإسلام‌، المسيحية‌، السياسة‌، التطرف‌، نيجيريا‌، السعودية

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